VITAL FUNDAMENTALS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Embedded systems are the devices in which a tiny microcontroller or microprocessor is placed. The microchip is fed with a C program or assembly language according to its desired function. This device performs a single assigned function.
All components have to utilize the memory optimally.
We can see today that the 21st century is widely advancing in embedded technology.
Need for Embedded technology:
As time advances technology advances the convenience of the user is the most important priority. Embedded systems achieve this by reducing the size of internal components vastly whilst retaining the performance of the system.
SALIENT FEATURES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:
- They can save a lot of space
- Can incorporate a lot of functions into a system
- Provides convenience to the users in many ways by providing a simple interface.
- Precise control over the system at any time.
- Embedded C software compiler-such as KEIL (popular)
- Software developer tools.
APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:
- Biomedical science
- Washing machines
- Traffic systems
- Household equipment
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS COMPONENTS:
- RTOS(Real-time operating system)
- Software application.
- Input and output devices.
- Primary and Secondary memory.
- Networking units.
CLASSIFICATION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:
There are mainly three types of embedded systems based on industry scale production:
- Complex scale
- Medium scale
INTRODUCTION TO MICROPROCESSORS
It is basically a microchip(small computer) placed onto an architecture of the main system.
Its Central processing unit comprises of
- Arithmetic processing unit
- Stack pointer
- Interrupt circuit
- Timing circuit
- Read only memory and random access memory.
- Memory decoder
- Serial and parallel ports
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCONTROLLER
|Fast transfer of data between data and microprocessor||Similar transfer between mp and code and data|
|Less bit handling instruction usually one type||Many bit handling data|
|Used in general purpose digital computers||Used at the application level|
|ALU, Registers, timing and control units||Include additional components such as Timer, parallel I/O, RAM, EPROM, ADC and DAC in addition to the basic functional blocks of microprocessors|
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROCESSORS:
Embedded processors are used for fast switching operations.
Application specific system processor:
2.APPLICATION SPECIFIC SYSTEM PROCESSOR:
They are used to perform a specific set of instructions in a short amount of time.
Used when a single processor does not meet the demands. In this processor, all tasks are simultaneously done for optimal performance.
E.g:- Octa, hexa, deca, quad core processors.
DIGITAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS:
Finds large applications such as audio and video processing as well as telecommunication devices.
Used when the fast processing of signals is required.