Advantages And Disadvantages of Embedded Systems

Advantages And Disadvantages of Embedded Systems

During embedded systems training in Bangalore, Many student ask us what is the advantages and disadvantages of embedded systems. At Professional Training Institute campus had once open seminars for around 2 hours on these topics. Here I summarize the outcome of the seminar so that everyone gets benefited from learning.

Development Cycle

Embedded system is having a well-defined development cycle, this cycle starts from the requirement gathering, product specification, product design, unit testing, validation, the release of the product. Mainly this cycle includes development I.e. coding and unit testing. In the embedded system, we need to consider the capability of the embedded system, power requirement, target cost, etc.

During design, if the company is having similar expertise then it will help in development. In embedded company can develop a re-usable component. This component can be hardware or firmware or testing plans or review points etc. This type of reusable component help during the next development time. All the learning can be helpful in the next development cycle.

The disadvantage is if the developer made one mistake and we are using the same reusable component may be hardware design or firmware code, then the same code will be reflected in all products, wherever that component is re-used. So the re-usable component must to well tested and trusted.

Time of Development

Normally development time in embedded systems is higher. As embedded devices are meant to run independently throughout life. Due to this independent nature of the embedded device, during development time products need to test thoroughly for all possible conditions. Such due to long and regress testing, we can get many errors. Most of the errors are related to Firmware or connection-related, which are solved with less time. But sometimes we can Error which can lead to a long hardware modification development cycle.
So the time of development for a good quality product is always a constraint. This can be put into a disadvantage bucket. But over some time when companies develop the more and more maturity over embedded hardware, then this development reduce significantly and can be considered Advantage, as within a short period many (1-2 week) company can develop a new product. So the development time entirely depends upon developer knowledge and capabilities.


The product cost of the embedded system is always a key factor to discuss, it is having both advantages and disadvantages. Consider the very competitive market many products are available in the same segment, that time we can’t huge profit margin. We need to keep our price is also in the same segment, there is a possibility that we may not able to make much profit. Consider if our BOM (total cost of the component, PCB, Box) cost is 90$, but in the market same product is available at the price of 100$ then we also need to put a similar cost. In some cases, if our product having some special feature then we can charge an extra amount.
On the other hand, if our product is only in the segment and we are not having any direct competitor then the same product we can sell at 1000$, depends upon usability users are easily able to purchase our product. But in most of the cases, Embedded product cost is having 100% profit the margin which gives very attractive towards embedded system design.


Once we have certified and tested embedded products with us then, the production of the embedded product is an easy and simple process. But production is always having the constraint of time, which means we need to finish production in less time. We can easily reproduce the same product at a low cost. When we go for production even the cost of the product further reduce due to the bulk quantity of production.
Production of the embedded device is a having advantage, one famous product can give a lot of profit to the company and it is having a huge margin. So this is a great advantage of an embedded system. On the other hand, some time in production if some wrong or default component is used then a whole lot of production gets failed, this can lead to heavy loss to the company, and the company should be ready to bear such losses. This is one of the losses of embedded system production.

Life of Product

For every embedded system we need to give some kinds of warranty, some time this warranty leads to huge profit or a huge loss. Profit or loss depends upon how good is our product.
Consider we are making a shaving device, and all our competitor is giving one year warranty, we can give a 2-year warranty and make our price higher. But this is only possible when we are having confidence in our product. Our product should be lost for more then 2 years, if not then it will be a huge loss for the organization.

Here is I will cover one very technical point, consider an EEPROM (Electrical Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory). EEPROM is always having a limited write cycle. Consider EEPROM is having a 100000 write cycle. If we give a warranty of 2 years then in one day we will only be allowed to write in EEPROM =100000/2*365 =136 times.
It means if are giving a 2-year warranty of our product and EEPROM we are using to save some data into it, then in a day, we should not write more then 136 times. If by mistake our software is writing more then 136 times then the EEPROM of our product will not be lost for 2 years and we may need to replace our product with a warranty. So this life of the product is having a lot of advantages and disadvantages of an embedded system world.

Operations in Filed and Maintenance:

Once we sold our product, our customers will come back to us only when we give service to them after-sales. While making products we need to consider the servicing and maintenance accepts also. Nowadays many devices are coming with firmware update over the air. Firmware update over the air will save a lot of time to visit service engineers to the actual site and do it manually.
So if the embedded product is having good features like an Auto diagnosis of error, Reporting possible error in advance to the server, isolating failed component, firmware update then we will have very
little maintenance cost and it will increase the trust of our customers as well. But for other product service engineers need to visit the actual product location that may increase the cost of maintenance.

We are a Professional Training Institute highly focused on embedded system training and giving more importance to hands-on embedded system training. We believe the learning by doing it has a great advantage. We are having expertise in Embedded system training, Linux internals, Linux device driver, Embedded Linux. You can visit us for more information on www.ptinstitute.in

Characteristics Of Embedded Systems

Characteristics Of Embedded Systems

With the knowledge I gain over 18 years in Industrial exposure, I am sharing my understanding of the embedded system with you. If anyone of you want to gain deeper knowledge in the embedded system then I will suggest you go through the practical and hands-on training in an embedded systems institute which makes you an embedded professional.
Here I want to share with you the characteristic of the embedded system, it will help you understand the embedded system better and deeper.
Here is I listed 10 important points which will tell you the characteristic of the embedded system, and how beautiful embedded system is. Here I want to tell you there are many – more characteristic are available which can be further explored.

1) Embedded Product Design for Infinite Life

Yes, I am not joking, all embedded products are designed to infinite life periods. In every embedded system, we are having
While (1)
// infinite loop
The meaning of this loop is embedded firmware will work forever. It means an embedded device is designed to be run for always/forever. Although the life of hardware is limited and after some time hardware is started degrading its performance while software (firmware) keeps working with full potential.

2) Self-Reset

Normally embedded device is developed to work in autonomous mode, it means no human will be available near to them. The example of such type of application is Energy meters, temperature monitor units, remote monitoring units, Windmill controllers. Consider in such type of embedded device if we got some error and firmware stops working then humans can’t reach there and reset the device.

In such a case normally we are using a time called watchdog timer, this timer help to reset the whole system if the system stuck some unwanted location. Actually during normal operation devices are keeps feeding the watchdog timer, so watchdog timer keeps running, but if our firmware stuck some unwanted loop then the firmware will not able to reset the watchdog timer. In this case, the watchdog timer will reset the whole system and try to recover the system automatically.

3) Real-time Processing Capability

Embedded system comes with real-time processing capabilities, it means the as soon as the signal is available will be processed and action will be taken accordingly. In some of the real-time application, timing is very critical. Let’s see some of the examples of real-time applications. Detecting rash driving on highways, war field spying robots, Health monitoring systems, etc. You can see in all of the above examples time is very critical, the embedded device needs to process the signal in almost real-time. Even a single mistake will ruin the purpose of the device. But fortunately, embedded systems are capable to process signals in real-time and take action faster.

4) Embedded Having Face Mask for User

This points only developer can understand while working in the embedded system we are having many things/data/signals which we are not showing to the user as it is. We as a developer having some other data with us, but to the user, we show some other thing. Normally to the user, we show in the human-readable format. This human-readable format gives clarity in operation and understanding of the machine, while actually, we may have very complex data with us.
Just for example if we want to display 1 on 7-segment display then actual we are writing 0x06 on the port to display one. So now you can see with this simple example that for 1 to display we are showing 0x06. This feature gives liberty to the developer that we can layout our world the ways we want.

5) Learn Once Use Lifetimes

This is a very beautiful feature of an embedded system, you just need to learn once and you can use that knowledge for the rest of your life. I will explain this in detail consider if you are working in JAVA/C#/JaveScript/etc any high-level programming language then with 6-12 months. you will get a new version of language itself or altogether a new language. So it means you need to keep learning continuously and upgrade your knowledge. But in the embedded system we are having a facility that if once we learn practically then you can use that knowledge as it is for the rest of your life. Here in Professional Training Institute, we focus on practical and hands-on training in the embedded systems, that gives stable carrier to our student.

6) Having Capability to Match Real Lifetime

In many embedded applications, we are having a requirement to take action on exactly 10:00 AM or 6:00 PM, etc. So it means any delay in time will lead to missing the purpose of the device itself. In such an application, we need to generate or maintain time inside of embedded devices such that this time matches exactly the same as real-world time.

In most of the applications, we are using RTC chip – real-time clock to do this activity, but in some embedded applications using internal timer we are calculating time, in such an embedded device we need to write very optimize code so that we can calculate real-time from firmware. Calculating time with firmware is fun.

7) Software Behaviour

Software behavior is always the same but hardware can change its behavior. The behavior of embedded firmware will always same, it means the ways firmware is working the first time then next time and every time firmware will work the same ways. So as an embedded developer we should be always confident behavior of embedded firmware. But hardware can change its behavior, over a period of time hardware degraded. Due to the degraded hardware, we face behavior changes. As a human being whenever any program occurs we directly doubt our work, but as per my experience, the most common cause of the error is a connection/wring/environment, etc. Which means neither hardware nor software is giving problems.

8) Encryption Algorithm Make Embedded Safe From Hackers

Embedded system is porn to hacking, in much critical application hacker are trying to theft data. In the current world, data is costlier than gold. But fortunately, in the embedded system we are having encryption algorithms like (SHA, DES, AES, MD5, etc.). By using Encryption algorithm users are able to save the embedded system from hackers. The above algorithm is very hard to hack, and almost zero practical hacking attempts got succeed till now.

9) Detection and Reporting of Hardware and Software Failure

This is a very advanced feature in new embedded systems. We are able to detect the possible error in hardware or software based on the past learning of machine. Here I will give one example, EEPROM is having a limited write cycle, so while writing software we can limit and count our EEPROM write. So even before it occurs our device is safe. Still consider we can save some know signature bytes in the memory like 0xAA5500AA on some know location. Periodically read and verify the signature bytes, it will let firmware know that EEPROM is in good condition and is able to save data. We are having many other methods like ti-redundancy check, in this methods, we save our data into three locations, and before using read all three and compare at-least two data should match, then only we consider data is valid. Almost all computers are having a power-on self-test, in this computer try to detect hardware availability as well and normal functionality. Similar functionality is implemented in an embedded system as well.

10) ASIC Help to Reduce Hardware and Software

Now a day we are having special IC for the special purpose of work, it is called as ASIC – application-specific integrated chip. The advance of ASIC is it helps to reduce the hardware and software. Most of the work of hardware and software will be converted into IC format and companies creating special ICs. such as ICs is having many advantages like

  • Reduce cost
  • Small in size
  • Fast development
  • Less chance of copying the data.

Here I had listed some of the characteristics of the embedded system, we at professional training institute focus on practical and hands-on embedded system training in Bangalore. We are having an embedded system training institute in Bangalore, we also provide training in Linux device driver and Embedded Linux. Contact us for more details.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

Definition Of Artificial Intelligence:

Artificial intelligence is the ability of a computer program or a machine to think and learn.

There are so many benefits to artificial intelligence. We can use AI in medical research, Aerospace, face recognition, railways, education, business, health care, banking and so on.

Nowadays Artificial Intelligence is the part of human life and humans are surrounded by AI technology like smart sensors, automatic parking systems, etc. By using artificial intelligence we can be simplifying the administrative tasks, smart content, personalized learning, global learning, and new efficiencies in the education system.

By using the right Artificial Intelligence technology your business may save time and money automating the process and we can increase the productivity and quality of the product in the business.

Nowadays most of the industries using artificial intelligence to improve their performance, Mainly in transportation, healthcare, finance, manufacturing, industries, Advertising. By using the AI in business we can increase the sales, identify the fraud attempts, improve customer satisfaction. We can increase the manufacturing output and efficiency, can improve the marketing and advertising also, at the same time by using AI in business we can save time and money by automating the process and can avoid the human error.

There are 4 kinds of AI is there

  • Reactive Machine
  • Limited memory
  • Theory of mind
  • Self-Awareness

Reactive Machine

There is a basic type of artificial intelligence. They do not store Memories. They do not use past experiences to determine future actions. They simply understand the world and according to that will react.

Limited Memory

It is mostly used in self-driving cars. They will detect the movement of vehicles around constantly, the static data such as lane marks, traffic signals, curves, humps in the road will be added to the artificial intelligence machine. It helps individual cars to avoid getting hit by a nearby vehicle.

Theory of Mind

Here machines should be thinking like a human brain. Will load all different kinds of human thinking ways. According to human thinking, the machine will be a response, but this is very difficult for how we (humans) formed society because they allowed us to have social interactions. If AI systems are true to walk among us. They will have to be able to understand that each of us has thoughts, feelings, and expectations for how we will be treated.


One of the pitfalls for machines becoming a self-awareness is that consciousness in humans is not well-defined enough, which would make it difficult if not impossible for programmers to replicate such a state in algorithms for AI.

Resume Writing Tips For Embedded Students


Resume writing is an Art, a resume should speak very loud and clear. When any company receives your resume then the company will judge your knowledge based on your resume only. We at a Professional Training Institute focus on each student’s resume who join us for embedded system training in Bangalore.

Now, this document we had published for everyone, the student can utilize the information available in this document and make their resume better. This document is divided into two parts one general guideline and the other is embedded specific guidelines.

General Points Need to Cover in Resume

Contact Information

It should include candidate name, contact number and email id. An alternative contact number also benefits some times.

Career Objective for Fresher’s & Experienced Candidates

For fresher’s, it should use

1) I am an entry-level applicant.
2) I am a recent graduate student.

For Experienced, it should use

1) I have/ had major achievement in my experience
2) I am applying to a position in the same industry.
3) I have a special area of expertise in my mind.

Work Experience

Here we need to mention current company work details as first. Freshers can write some projects if they have done, if not then they can study some projects from their interest filed and write here.

Additional Skills

Additional skills are mixed with soft skills like adaptability, collaboration, strong work ethic, problem-solving, team building and hard skills like MS excel proficient, business management, client management, fluent English.


Here education details have to mention from the highest degree to lowest including percentages and year of passing out for freshers. For experienced candidates have to mention only the highest qualification.

If you have fewer % marks in your education then skip writing % marks, just write a year of passing.

Personal Information

Here you have to mention father’s name, date of birth, known languages, etc.


This is the final step to complete the resume.

While making a resume specific to an embedded filed, and targeting embedded companies then we need to pay special attention to resume. We have to add some special keywords that are related to an embedded filed.

Here is the details description of what is expected in embedded candidates:

Knowledge of Communication Protocol

The company is normally searching for a keyword like UART, SPI, I2C, RS232, and RS485 in the resume.

Embedded Tools

Knowledge of tools used in embedded like CRO, multi-meter, logic analyzer, power supply, USB to 232 converters, USB to 485 converters, and programming tools like STLink.ICD2/ICD3.

Knowledge of IDE

The important IDE is Keil, MP lab, and code worrier. Apart from this also some more IDE is used in the market. So the candidate must have understanding and knowledge of at least 1-2 IDE.

Knowledge of SDLC

The student must aware of requirement analysis, design, and development, unit testing, testing, and release. Most of the big MNC interview company will defiantly ask about SDLC, so the student should be ready and handy knowledge in the field of SDLC.

Domain Knowledge

Domain knowledge is knowledge of a specific, specialized discipline or field, in contrast to general knowledge or domain-independent knowledge. The term is often used about a more general discipline. as, for example, in describing a software engineer who has a general knowledge of programming, as well as domain knowledge about the pharmaceutical industry. People who have domain knowledge, are often considered specialists or experts in the field.

So we strongly believe that if you make your resume as per required guidelines then defiantly you will have more opportunities to get calls from different companies. If you want to gain knowledge or you want to learn embedded systems practical then you can join our practical hands-on embedded system training course in Bangalore. We are highly focused on individual learning. Chat/ call us on www.ptinstitute.in

What Programming Language is Used for Embedded Systems?

programming language is used for embedded systems - PTInstitute

Embedded system is a combination of both hardware and software. Embedded system is growing very fast. To program any embedded device mainly c programming is used.
To work in the embedded field, c programming is enough to manage all embedded devices. C programming is high-level programming, which is used to control the device. All the controllers like microcontroller 8051, 8052, PIC controller, STM32 all can be programmed by c programming.
We can use different programming languages for an embedded system like assembly language, some scripting languages Perl, and python. Try PTInstitute for embedded courses in Bangalore.
The B programming language was created to complete these tasks with a very less number of lines code, but it did not have data types or structures. C was then created which implemented features missing in B. C then became the standard the programming language in the UNIX systems.
C was created in the early 70s by Dennis Ritchie as a high-level programming language in UNIX operating systems. At that time, the Assembly language was mainly used, assembly language required many lines of code to accomplish a simple task. If you are good at c programming you can learn any programming language easily. C programming involves functions, arrays, pointer, and data structure. Most of the embedded system devices are developed using the c programming language. If you are looking for c programming teaching institutes. you can search for best embedded system training institute in Google.
Hardware Description Languages are used a lot in FPGAs and parallel programming applications. They are quite different from many other types of languages in that they are frequently used based on hardware, hence “hardware description”.
Verilog was invented in the early 80s as one of the first HDLs, used primarily in the modeling of electronic systems. The language name is a shortened version of “Verification of LOGIC”. The program is based on a hierarchy of modules to be able to describe a system. Verilog may be easier to learn if you already have experience with programming in C.
Verilog was invented in the early 80s as one of the first HDLs, used primarily in the modeling of electronic systems. The language name is a shortened version of “Verification of LOGIC”. The program is based on a hierarchy of modules to be able to describe a system. Verilog may be easier to learn if you already have experience with programming in C.

Ada Programming Language

Ada is statically typed, essential, and structured programming language, Ada is a mainly extended from Pascal it’s a high-level object-oriented computer programming language. Ada is mainly targeted at real-time systems and embedded systems. Some important features of Ada programming language are we can check the code during the run time and we can do parallel processing, it includes generics, exception handling and dynamic dispatch.
Ada is mainly designed for the development of very large software systems. Packages of Ada can be compiled individually. Ada package specifications can also be compiled individually without the implementation to check for reliability. This help to detect problems early mainly during the design phase, as before implementation starts.

Python Programming Language:

Python is high level, the interpreted general-purpose programming language it is developed by Guido van Rossum first it was released in 1991.
Python is garbage collected and dynamically typed language. Python supports multi programming paradigms including object-oriented, procedural and functional programming as well. You can search for well-embedded training institutes in Bangalore.
Python is frequently described as batteries included language because of its comprehensive standard library files.
Python programming language is used in an embedded system as well, to design an embedded system like in IoT python programming is used.
We at Professional Training Institute give practical oriented training on the embedded system, c programming language, python.

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering -ptinstitute

Job Oriented Course After Electronics Engineering

Hello, Friend electronics and communication engineering are one of the evergreen branches of Engineering. A student who passes out from engineering does not have enough knowledge in the core field. If you want to do the job in the core field, the best ways to gain knowledge in embedded system to gain the knowledge you can join embedded system training in Bangalore.
If you are an Electronics and communication engineer (ECE/EE/EEE), then feel yourself as very lucky. You are having a tremendous opportunity for jobs. The main advantage of ECE branch is you can work in Core filed like embedded system, Embedded developer in R&D, Embedded tester, Embedded Device repairing, Embedded project development, Embedded C programmer, Telecom filed Networking. You can also work in technical marketing filed like embedded product marketing like UPS, consumer electronics products, Displays, video walls, projectors, IOT wearables, etc.
You may not be aware of which filed you can work. There are many fields in which you can work. So here we will discuss as many filed possible, but I want to say that there are many more filed is still possible you can get a job. This post is mainly cover where all ECE student can get a job. We will also cover in deeply all the pros and cons of those fields. So let’s start your journey called a career.

Embedded System Engineer:

The embedded systems engineer is the most promising job field in the current job field and in future also. For this job profile, the candidate should be good in programming and hardware side too. Candidate should be flexible in writing programs in C programming language, which most widely used in this field and by the knowledge or expertise in this programming language the candidate can work with any other languages which are used in this fields. The hardware side also should be good enough for the candidate. An embedded systems engineer develops the programs with respect to its hardware components. So the candidate must know how to read and understand the data sheets of required components and to develop.

For the best start in this field, it is better you join embedded training. With the course in the embedded system, you can full knowledge of the subject, it will help you get in the job. For training, you can choose Best embedded systems training in Bangalore.

Embedded C Developer /Firmware Engineer:

Another job field for the electronics and communication engineers can choose is embedded c Developer or firmware engineer. Where they will develop source codes for the requirement. For this profile, the candidate should be good in programming languages especially c language. Training programs towards embedded c development are available in the industry. Where the candidate will get the training in c language and will be able to develop the program for microcontrollers or microprocessors.
Students who are not that much interested in the hardware side can go with software development section in the embedded field. There are a lot of embedded systems training institutes are available in Bangalore and other cities in India. You can choose the top embedded training institute in Bangalore.

Linux Internal and Linux Device Driver

Nowadays there is much more application of the Linux operating system. Many companies are started using Linux as an operating system for their product. Being knowledge in Linux Internal and Linux Device driver it will defiantly be going to help in your career.
If you don’t know what is Linux Device Driver then, Hardware device functionality we can control through a program is called device driver. The career growth in this field is very high because in embedded field and in any other electronics or computer science filed we make use this field. What is the importance of making device drivers in Linux platform? Since most of the kernel is working in Linux because of its bug-free nature. So to get a job in this competitive field is get well trained from good institutes to sharpen your skills.
Salary in this field is very high. There are a lot of training institutes are available in this field to give the training. You can join the embedded course in Bangalore and find out embedded course cost if it matters you most, but the salary in this much-much higher than the training cost.

Embedded Hardware Engineer

Embedded hardware engineer designs and performs on the tiny chips what we called microcontrollers or microprocessors. They are not only working on the chips they will work on the required things which can help the chips to work as a system. They will design the hardware board required for the product and so on. Persons who are interested in the hardware or who is not that much keen about software jobs can choose this field. For this field no training institute available. In this filed normally companies higher fresher then give training according to company need. If you still want to join some course to start your career as hardware engineer then you can join embedded system Bangalore.

Embedded Tester:

This field also same as software testing. Embedded software testing is the testing of embedded systems. Embedded software is tested for their performance, consistency, quality and it will get validated as per the requirements of the client.
For the testing field job, the candidate should be aware of Automotive Embedded, Black Box Testing, System Testing, Test Engineer, Unit testing, White Box Testing, and HIL Testing. Knowledge in these fields can easily achieve through a training program.

PLC/SCADA Programming:

Programmable Logic Controller or PLC is a computing system these are used to control electromechanical processes. SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. It is also another type of industrial control system which is used to monitor and control facilities and infrastructure in big industries.

Students can take a training program in this field and can show their skills in this field of programming. This field is mostly working towards instrumentation field. So students who are more interested in electronics and instrumentation can choose this field. But the jobs in this filed is limited and now a day embedded the system is taking over the jobs related to PLC SCADA.

Due to limited jobs and shrinking, the filed salary in this field is very low as compared to the embedded system. Moreover, the engineer working in this filed does not work in the development, the main job is to do the configuration of the PLC device.

Telecom Installer:

This field of job requires some physical work from the employee. It involves the installation and repairs of the telecommunication devices. There are few training institutes which provide knowledge in this filed. Becoming a telecom installer is also another option for ECE job seekers. But the comparison with other above-mentioned jobs it will give less average salary and opportunity to learn new things. Due to telecom completion, this file is now a day having low demands.

RF Engineer:

Radiofrequency engineer is one of the core field jobs. The detailed training program in this field is not much popular duration can be 4-5 days only. Candidate should know about RF planning, cellular networks such as GSM, CDMA, UMTS.HSPA+, LTE, LTE-Advanced, LTE-Advanced Pro, 5G, mmWave, Radar, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth/BLE/BT5.0, Zigbee, Satellite Communications, VSAT, two-way radio, Public Safety, testing, and simulation.

They also have to work on wireless systems also. Lack of skilled persons making this field more demand. In this field, jobs are less but the salary is very high. If you want to do jobs in this field then you need to direly apply to the company which is working in the field of telecom.

Networking Admin

Every company must have computers/Laptops when man computers are coming together and using the internet then we need some methods through which they can connect together.
Not only computer connectivity there are many more things that network engineer do like server maintenance, data security, VOIP connectivity, etc. Network administration is a job highly demands job in the industry. Because they will install, support and manage all the computers and networks in the companies which will ensure the flow of data or work is going without fail.
There are a lot of training programs and certification courses are available in this field to get the job. But there are a lot of trained peoples there in the field so the perks of the job are getting reduced. Each and every company need a network engineer. So trained resource candidate in this is having a very good career opportunity.
You can easily open your own company in this field, and earn huge money.

Technical Marketing:

Technical persons with good communication skills and the ability to impress people with their new product can have a bright future in this field. To become a technical marketing person the candidate should at least have good communication and thorough knowledge in the respective field. There is no specified training program in this field. But then also we can get some training on the marketing side.
If the candidate doesn’t have that much passion towards development area they choose this field as it is easy to get comparatively other development jobs in the core fields.

Equipment Installation and Maintenance Engineer:

Equipment installation and maintenance won’t demand that much from the technical side. The candidate should be aware of the company products and mainly how to install those. This field also doesn’t have any proper training program from outside. Because it mainly depends on the company products and it will change from company to company. Other benefits in this field comparatively lesser than developments. If the candidate wants to change his field to develop it will become a little hard for them.

Technical Contains Writer:

It’s a huge demanding field as every product development companies once they develop the products they need technical content writers to describe their products, it’s usage, maintenance, etc. (for product manual). This field requires good writing skills and knowledge in the products. We can’t take any training program in this field but then also we do to improve the writing skills in the required language.

Engineering College Faculty:

This a good choice for the people who are more interested in teaching. Who has good teaching sense? We can’t give any training to this field as it is somebody’s skill to make students get understand. Candidate should have a thorough knowledge of the subject for this profile. But the salary in this filed is limited.

Non-Core Jobs:

Software testing, Java developer, Big Data/Hadoop/AWS:

Though these jobs are technical these do not core jobs to ECE field. These jobs easily available in the market and number of training programs also available. Though these are easily available the benefits and growth in this field are less because in this field the number of students is getting trained in each year because of less training fee, a number of institutes, etc.

Non-Technical jobs Like BPO, Tele-caller:

Training is on the job only, no institutes are giving training for these. But people can take training in for their language improvement. These jobs will have a pretty good salary in the beginning but once the employee gets experienced then the higher posts will be highly filtered because this field is huge in a number of employees. So the increment in the salary or other benefits will become saturated once they got experienced. The ratio of growth will get slow compared to other development jobs.


There is a huge opportunity is available for ECE student, but the most promising field is embedded system development. There are many embedded system ideas which are yet to come out from your mind, once you have a clear idea about the product then you can start making them. Embedded system training cost is much lesser than any other training in the core filed. Once you do training then you can easily get a job in embedded filed.
The advantage of working in core filed is no other branch can come and replace you in the future. In all other filed it will be very easy to replace you, so in the future, you will get less salary. In core embedded filed nobody can replace easily. Choosing a profession after ECE is difficult. Then we should think about our passion or interest in each field. Once you determined to operate in one field try to get good training in the same. It will help you in the future to secure a good position.



Best Embedded System Projects Ideas for Final Year Students

embedded system projects ideas - PTInstitute

Best Embedded System Projects Ideas for Final Year Students

Embedded system is a look like a computer system, it is the combination of both hardware, and software, it is normally designed to perform the several operations like data accessing, processing that data and data storing in the real-time applications. Embedded system is fastest growing in day-to-day life and also increasing the institutes for embedded training, there are a number of embedded systems training institutes, who are giving training for embedded systems. Embedded systems projects are possibly the group of projects, particularly with regarding the electronics & electrical students. For completing the whole embedded project, we need to study about the Embedded System course and we are the Professional Training Institute, we will train the students to be good in the embedded systems, we will teach to the students how to develop a project and what we need learn when you are doing a project. While choosing any embedded system course we need to join in the best-embedded system training institute. Here, you will find the top embedded training institutes in Bangalore as well. Nowadays, there are many ways to build our carrier. But when it comes to ECE/EEE/EE student then we are having very fewer options. Students are having a few top Technologies for doing projects are on VLSI/SCADA-PLC/ and Embedded system. If you are interested to do projects, then one of the best and core field is an embedded system. I will discuss with you how to build a project on Embedded System, if we have done more projects on embedded systems then we will have a successful career in the embedded system.

Embedded systems are found in simple devices like television remote controls, calculators & microwave and also in more complicated devices like medical, home security, traffic control systems and military etc.., nowadays many engineering students are interested to do simple embedded projects to build their carrier on jobs in the embedded systems and improving the practical knowledge. We can use 8051 Microcontroller, PIC, Arduino, and Raspberry Pi controllers to build embedded projects. For doing any embedded project we need to aware of embedded courses. Here, we are giving some list of embedded systems.

1. Vehicle Tracking By GPS – GSM
2. Automatic Bell System for Institutions
3. Cell Phone Controlled Robotic Vehicle.
4. Fire Fighting Robotic Vehicle.
5. IR Controlled Robotic Vehicle.
6. Design and Implementation of a Metal Detector Robotic Vehicle.
7. RFID Based Device Control and Authentication Using PIC Microcontroller.
8. Temperature Controlled Fan Projects.
9. Design of Embedded Security Door Lock System
10. Communication between two PC using ZigBee.

The above are some of the embedded projects and firmware developers need to have good knowledge about hardware development and understand the internal workings of an embedded processor. Embedded Software Development generally involves below steps:
1 Development of product based on our requirement
2 Coding
3 Hardware Development
4 Testing.

embedded system project ideas - PTInstitute

1. Development of Product based on our Requirement:

We need to choose a project, which we are going to design, and we need to add some more features if we are doing an existing project. We need to gather all the required components and an overview idea of the project and we need to select a particular controller which will help for easy designing. We need to gather all the components and study of each component how they are working and how we need to interface with the controller. Then make an algorithm for the project which we need to design, then analyze how it needs to implement to the hardware section.

2. Coding:

Coding is the main part of the Embedded Projects because all controllers will work with the machine language only. Here, the controller will work and interface with all the peripherals based on the code we have written. In our life, we know only C language, till now we don’t have any other requirement to learn other languages. C is the main programming language for the embedded system. Mainly C language is working more closely hardware. it is most widely used programming in the world. While you are sitting in an interview, you should have complete knowledge of C language. In any embedded system, interview 90% questions will come from C language. you should have control over C language. In Interview, the company is expecting a very deep understanding of C, normally they ask higher end of C language like a function pointer, structure, union, pointer, the array of structure pointer etc. In order to achieve control over the interview, you should go complete understanding of C language.
When you want to do a project, you have to design an embedded product and you need to use C language. We need to know Advance knowledge in C language. We need to write a code for our embedded project we have to write code by interfacing all the peripherals and making the controller to be work as per our requirement. As a deeper understanding, you will have to learn a C language that much good code you can write. We are a Professional Training Institute in Bangalore, we give training in C completely hands on, it will make our student knowledge stronger than any experienced student.

3. Hardware Development:

While designing a Hardware, we need to know all the hardware components, which we are used in the embedded projects. Normally component used in Embedded is Resistance, capacitor, inductance, diode, transistor we should be aware of these components, how to use them, limitation etc. We may also need to have knowledge of ICs like RTC DS1307, EEPROM – 24c04, ADC 0804, RS232, ULN2003 etc we should know what all types of ICs are available and where we can use them. When we know how the hardware components will work and how to interface with other components then we can easily complete the projects with less help with others. First, we need to draw a schematic for that project then we can do a simulation on the system, for example, we can do the simulation on Proteus and we can check the output of our requirement. If our schematic circuit is correct then we can make that as PCB design by proper placing the components and make sure about the Soldering, after soldering each component check that whether it happens any shorted. Then finally dump the code into the controller and check the output.

4. Testing:

When we complete the project by making Hardware interfacing and code writing then we need to check that the complete project working as per our requirement. First, we need to dump the code to the controller then we need to check the output. If we are getting then our process is completed and we submit the project if output did not come then we need to check where the errors getting and we need to debug that errors. Like first we need to check for every component getting a power supply as per our requirement then we need to check at each component whether each component has desired input and output and whether it is working or not if there any problem try to replace with another component. Check all the connection, wiring connection and check whether any short circuit happens. Like this, we need to debug the whole network and analyze the errors than correct it. After the testing completed it is necessary to make documentation also. When you start designing the project then you need to make a design document. When any customer buys our product he needs to know about how it will work and he requires manual, to operate that product. When you have completed your project and you need to submit a project for review and release, that time you need to have all the document completed.

For doing this Embedded Projects, we need to join in the topmost Embedded Training Institute and we need to check whether they can provide good training or not. Our embedded system training in Bangalore has good knowledge on embedded systems and can take of each student in a batch so if you want to grow your carrier at a peak level then immediately join in our institute or you can top most embedded institutes.



Advantage of Getting Trained in Embedded System

Advantage of getting trained in embedded system

Advantages of Getting Trained in the Embedded Systems

Embedded system training helps to get the full knowledge of the embedded domain. Embedded system is being used in all our day to day life.

The embedded training program is designed such a way that it helps you to learn the concepts of embedded systems, which includes the hardware design and the software principles.

The Training program offers a clear understanding of the several different embedded systems and their formation and usability.

This training helps the students to understand the various computer systems meant for the exact functions. Any individual having interest in this embedded domain can go for this training to make their career brighter. Our embedded training institute in Bangalore will teach the complete course of embedded system and we will give 100% course in and give good knowledge for the students here, so you can explore us and join our Free embedded training program in Professional Training Institute to enhance your skills. During the training program, You will get the Clear idea of knowledge in the embedded domain.

You can able to do your own projects using different controllers,

There are Plenty of Jobs Available in Embedded System

As technology is growing the embedded field is also growing very fast, so there are many job openings in the present industry for the embedded domain. We use embedded system everywhere in our day to day life, the main applications of embedded system are in the home automation, in the automotive industry, in agriculture, in defense, and in hospitals etc. so there are plenty of employees needed in research and development, testing, application, software development and in many other domains.

College Learning is Outdated, Industries Need Practical Knowledge

As industries using new technologies, so according to that our knowledge should be updated, we should have good knowledge of present technologies. Most of the college syllabus what we learned includes old technologies and it includes only basic information, which is not enough to work in industries.  As the college teaches about the old syllabus, which industry not using presently, the students just passed out from college will not have a clear understanding of present technologies. We at Professional Training Institute update our syllabus after every six months, our student gets full practical training. We train the students according to the present using technologies in the industries. So getting training in the embedded system make you develop your practical skills and you will be having

Once You Get Trained, Lifelong You Can Use that Knowledge

Once you get trained, you will be having a good understanding of the embedded system. When you have a clear understanding of the subject, you can utilize that knowledge whenever you want in future. We at professional training institute train our student such a way that, it’s easy for them to work in industries as they will have good practical knowledge.

Whatever you Getting Training Same Knowledge Needed While Working in Company

All training institute focus on present technology, they train their student based on the latest technologies. We at professional training institute train our student on latest technologies, which make them work easily in industry. The training environment at professional training is as like working in the industry. We focus more on practical classes, we help our student to work independently.

The Companies are Contacting Embedded Training Institute for Their Job Opening

Nowadays many companies are looking for trained students, as it will save their time. The process of interview will be easy for them. As a requirement of employees is more and in short time they want the employees, so companies contact the training institutes and they recruit directly the professionally trained students.

Good Embedded System Training Institute will Give You Training in All Dimension.

Many of training institute focus to develop the different skills, like personality development, communication skills and logical skills. We are also focusing on students’ knowledge and we will trained the students as an employer. When you got a job you can feel the job as equal to the experienced people because we will train you on practical knowledge mainly and we can make you to complete some projects on embedded systems individually. So, you will be look like an experienced person.


Top 10 Interview Questions in Embedded System with Answers

Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded system with Answers by PTInstitute

Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded system with Answers

Hi Students,

Every one very curious about the interview questions because you don’t know what type of questions Recruiter will ask so our embedded training institute in Bangalore is offering top 10 questions for students who are eager to get a job in the embedded field. With Professional Training Institute, You can get embedded system training which is 100% practical based training so you can get a place soon. Here see top 10 interview question in the embedded system.

Top 10 Interview Questions by Embedded Training Institute in Bangalore

1) What is the use of the volatile keyword?

I will answer this question in three level

Beginner level (Fresher)

Volatile is the keyword used for optimization by the compiler during code compilation. We are conveying the message to the compiler “Hey look this pieces of code can be modified externally so don’t optimized this code associated with the current variable”
Int main()
Int volatile vari=1;
Int Baudrate;
While (vari==1)
Baudrate = 9600;
If we did not make “vari” as volatile then compiler will remove this while loop as the value of “vari” is not going to change anywhere in the program.

Mid-Level (Experience less than 5 years):

Volatile was mainly introduced for the compiler to help in decision taking for code optimization. Until we are using C as application programming there is no impact of Volatile keyword, but as soon as we start handling with Peripheral like timer, ADC, I2C, RTC, IO port, Interrupt service routines(ISRs) then volatile is a most important keyword.
I am sure many times/some time you may face any of below conditions
1) When optimization is off, the code works fine but as soon as optimization is on code give some random error. In some compiler, we are having a different level of optimization. Therefore, up to certain level code works beyond that code gives an error.
2) Sometimes as soon as we start using Interrupt then some random error is generating.
3) In multitasking, system individual task works correctly but multiple tasks together give a problem.
So now consider below example
“static volatile sig_atomic_t signo[_NSIG];”
Here word static is defining the scope of the variable, while word volatile is giving instruction to the compiler that doesn’t optimize the code.
Please note volatile does not control or change the storage class of variable. While static keyword controls the storage class.
In another example
const volatile char *PORTA = (const volatile char *) 0x50;
Here we are saying that PORTA is defined at address 0x50, asking compiler not to optimized below code, at the same time by using const we are removing any by mistake writing by the user.
While (PORTA == 0xFF)
//do something here
While (PORTA!=0xFF)
If we did not make PORTA as the volatile compiler will optimized II while loop as he will think I while loop will never fail.
Const means if we write by mistake below the line.
PORTA= 0x55; – Compiler itself will give error.

Senior Level (More than 5 years):

A senior person can include few of above points and refer below advance information.
“An object that has volatile-qualified type may be modified in ways unknown to the implementation or have other unknown side effects. Therefore any expression referring to such an object shall be evaluated strictly according to the rules of the abstract machine.”
The line is taken from C-Open standard. Which clearly says that the volatile keyword should be implemented as an abstract machine. Which clearly means compiler can’t change anything, compiler need to convert C code as it is in
You can refer “ISO/IEC 9899: TC3” for more information.

2) Can a variable be both const and volatile?

This question is already answered above but in short discuss again.
The const keyword makes sure that the value of the variable declared as constant can’t be changed. This statement holds true in the scope of the full program. So if by mistake user tried to write on const variable compiler itself will give the error, and say read-only variable can’t change.
Since variable can’t change anywhere in the code the compiler will be tried to the optimized code associated with this variable, the compiler may think this code will not change in current
So the word volatile is the instruction to the compiler, look compiler although variable is not changing in current scope, it can change from any other unknown factors (Like IO operations, Switch operation, ISR, other Task etc.) so don’t optimize.

3) What is a static variable? Or what is a static keyword?

Both questions are look’s like same but they are different, let’s analyze carefully
What is a Static variable? Any variable we can analyze in two ways
A) Scope.
B) Life.
A) The scope of static variable –
1) If the variable is defined in local scope (Means inside of any function, may be either main or any other function), then the scope of static variable will be within a function.
2) If a static variable is defined in global scope (Means not inside any function) then the scope of the variable will be within the file. In the same file, any function can use this variable.
B) Life of scope variable –
1) Life of static variable is throughout the program. No matter it is defined in the local scope or global scope.
Storage class of static variable is Data segment, not stack. Let’s understand this. All local variables are stored in the stack, the stack is RAM memory which is used for temporary storage, all local variable of the function is stored here STACK and once we exit from that function this memory get free. So it means once we exit from function all local
variable has died. But if we want to preserve our variable even after the exit from the function, so that when next time we enter into the same function we should get same old value, in this case, we can define a variable as a STATIC variable.

What is the static keyword in C?

To answer this question you to include all the above points and as well as this static keyword can be applied to function. When any function is defined static then the function will be available into the same file. Other files can’t use that function.
This property is used for when with the same name we have interface other functionality then we can make functions with static scope, and other files also can have a function with the same. While the wrapper function will call the local static function.

4) What is the difference between a global static variable and a global variable?

The scope of the global variable is throughout the program, while the scope of a static variable is within the file.
Life of both variables (static variable and global) is throughout the program. Here understand question carefully. Questions are asking global static variable. It means is variable is saved in the file scope. Within file any function can use that variable, this variable will not be available in any other files.
While global variable can be accessed through any file.

5) What is the difference between structure and union?

C language is having many system-defined data types like char, int, float, double, long etc. we are also having an array of the above data types, which will help us to save more than many variables in contiguous locations.
The interview you can start giving an answer from here – In practical we need a combination of above data types, few examples are
1) Collecting student information
2) Collecting patient information
3) CAR information to be saved. Like this many examples is possible.
If we save information in system-defined data types, it will be difficult to manage them as all those data will be saved in a different – different memory location. C language is having provision to save all required information one
place. It is called a user-defined data type.
Structure and union are user-defined data type which stored data collectively. See below example
struct time{
unsinged int MemRead;
char sec;
char min;
char hour;
The structure will be saving all its parameters in memory like this
embedded training institute in bangalore
The structure will reserve memory for each of these elements; it will take 4 bytes each char will take 1 byte. The good part is all variable is stored in a contiguous memory location.
We can make a variable from a structure like this
Struct time today_time;
Union – as the name suggests it will be the union of all collected data into it. It means the total memory allocated to the union variable is the maximum size of the variable. See in below
union time{
unsinged int MemRead ;
char sec;
char min;
char hour;
Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded system with Answers
So all three variable sec, min, hour will be saved into the same place. Many students ask us, what is the use of a union.
Structure and union together can make magic lets below example.
union time{
unsinged int MemRead;
struct time_segment{
char sec;
char min;
char hour;
char day;
Now see how this union will be seating into memory.
Top 10 Interview Questions in embedded System with Answers
Now when we read from memory we can read like this
un_time.MemRead = 0x01020304;
while using we can use like this
if (un_time.st_time.day ==5)
Printf(“today is holiday\n”);
Printf(“today is working\n”);
So hope it making sense, a combination of union and structure is an amazing thing to use. This is most widely used in the embedded system, see our other post which is having details description of union and structure.

6) What is the function pointer, write delectation (prototype of the following function pointer)?

A function pointer is a variable, which can hold the address of the function. This is used in callbacks. Since C is sequential language. It processes one by one. However, for some cases, we may need to call a function based on conditions. In C a function pointer can only achieve this.
Declare a function pointer which will take two int pointer as input and return a char pointer
char * (*foo)(int *a, int *b);
Declare a function pointer, which will return the function pointer structure pointer and accepts one character and one integer.
struct school* (*foo)(char a, int b);
we can also have an array of structure pointers like this
char * (*foo[5])(int *a, int *b);
this can save 5 address of functions. Like this
char * (*foo[5])(int *a, int *b) = {add, sub, mul, div, mod};
so when we can use an array of function pointer like this

7) What is size of character, integer, integer pointer, character pointer?

The size of a character is 1 byte. Size of an integer is 4 bytes.
Size of integer pointer and character is 8 bytes on a 64-bit machine and 4 bytes on32-bit machine. Size of pointers does not depend upon the type of parameters, because pointer needs to save memory address, it does not matter what we are going to save them or from that address who many bytes we want. We just need to save the address.

8) What is interrupt latency?

Interrupt latency is the time required for an ISR responds to an interrupt. When interrupts occur in the embedded system, then the processor finishes current instruction, save the value of the program counter and jump to the required ISR. Sometime if the processor is busy and serving another interrupt then another interrupt may be pending till processor/controller is gets free from current ISR. Until that time another interrupt has to wait, this is the interrupt latency.
Interrupt latency should be as minimum as possible, otherwise, some very important action may miss, this delay in execution may cause some big impact on system performance.

9) How to reduce interrupt latency?

In order to reduce interrupt latency, while designing the system we should take a minimum time as possible in the ISR. We should divide our ISR into two part, The top half and bottom half. Top half should be very small and control should come out as soon as possible, normally in this section, we just copy the data, and generate some flags.
In the bottom half of ISR, we are executing out of ISR, we keep monitoring the flag signal sent by top half. Once execution is completed in bottom half we clear the flags and waits for next interactions from system or ISR.

With this method, we occupy very less time in the ISR. So other interrupts can be executed faster than previous, this reduces interrupt latency.

10)What is the dynamic memory allocation? Where we can use this?

The dynamic memory allocation is one of the best features in of C language. Let’s see in details,
In C language we are having many system-defined data types like int, char, float, double etc. Size of each one is fixed like it is 4 bytes, char is one byte, the float is 4 bytes etc.
We are also having user-defined data types like struct, union. Here we struct reserve memory for each of its elements while union reserve memory for the highest data types.
We can also make an array like int dates[100], it will reserve 100*4 = 400 bytes in the memory. The same way we can have struct school mycityschool[50]. This will reserve size of memory = size of one structure * 50
All above data types reserve memory at the compile time. It means how much element we need we have decided at the time of compilation time itself. But in many practical conditions, we may not how many students will join today, or how many cars will be sold today, or how many patients will come today in the hospital.
So it means we can’t decide the size of at the time of compilation. We need to wait in real time use. Some need some method by which we can allocate memory on runtime. This type of memory allocation is called dynamic memory allocation.
An example is here:
Ptr = (int *) malloc (sizeof (int)*50). This malloc will reserve memory of total 4*50= 200 bytes into memory and return void pointer. Before using this we need to do typecast like (int *) and then we can use ptr memory of int array of 50 elements.
We can use malloc in run time to save any number of data we want, off-course memory should be available. What is the meaning of the above sentence?
It means the system is allocating memory from some reserved memory space this reserve memory space is called as HEAP memory. This is a section of memory which is used in dynamic memory allocation. Once use of memory is complete then we should make it free like this
Free (ptr); this will release memory to the system again and can be reused.
We are having one more point to discuss here. Malloc is just reserve memory, it won’t change contains memory. But in some application, we may need memory with initializing with 0 In that case either we reserve memory with the malloc and through memcpy we make the initialize with 0, Or we can use
Ptr = (int *) Calloc (number_of_element, size_of_each_element);
Here we have to give two input one is a number of the element, size of each element.
Ptr =(int *) calloc (50, sizeof(int)); This will reserve 50*4 bytes and initialize withzero also.

Choose the Best Embedded Training Institute in Bangalore

We are a Professional Training Institute provides complete hands-on practical training in the embedded system, if you looking for embedded system training in Bangalore then choose us, as you go through our review and check what our old student is saying, they believe we are top embedded institute in Bangalore.
We are confident with our skill and capability, come and join our one-month free demo class we are sure you will fall in love with our teaching methods.
Best of luck for your future.
Professional Training Institute.

Syllabus of Embedded Systems Training in Bangalore

Syllabus of Embedded Systems Training in Bangalore

Syllabus of Embedded Systems Training in Bangalore

Professional training institute (PTI) is a Training organization, which is well known for providing quality education in advance fields such as Embedded System, C, Linux, CAN, Basic electronics, digital electronics, presently these are the hottest and best job-providing sectors. As the world changing fast, the technologies also changing day by day, we at professional training institute update our syllabus after every six months, we train the students according to the present using technologies in the industries.
We at Professional Training Institute train our student such a way that, it’s easy for them to work in industries as they will have good practical knowledge.
We at Professional Training Institute provide practical training such a way that our student getting an edge over others. Our main motto is to focus on practical and hands-on training to the student so that they are able to face any kind of interview in the embedded domain.

The Syllabus is Followed by Embedded Training Institute in Bangalore

This is 4-5 month course for B.E/B. Tech/MTech/ ME/ MCA/M. Sc Candidates Pre-final & Final Year with a background preferably Electronics, Electrical, Instrumentation or Computer science.

1. With this students will be handling their Mini & Final year project by themselves independently. If already completed engineering then this course will help to get job.
2. Our embedded training institute in Bangalore will provide 100% job assistance to our students. We give our full effort to get a job/place. We are having a dedicated team how is working with the placements.
3. Course Code: PTIESD0a – Comprehensive Embedded Systems Design Course is divided into following Major headings.

a) Basic Electronics and Digital Electronics.
b) Basic C.
c) Tools including S/W and H/W.
d) Basic of Hardware Concepts.
e) Basic Embedded.
f) Advance C.
g) Advance Embedded.
h) Basic Linux.
i) RTOS concepts.
j) Linux Internal and Linux Device Drivers.

Details Description of Syllabus of Embedded Systems Courses in Bangalore

Basics of Electronics and Digital Electronic

Sl#Unit NameUnit Objectives and Keywords
1Basic Electronics
  • Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors.
  • PN-Junction.
  • Diodes.
  • Transistor.
  • Interpretation Data Sheet.
  • Half-Wave Rectifiers/ Full-Wave Rectifier.
  • Power Supply 3.3V,5.0V,12.0V, Voltage Regulators.
  • Crystals
  • Switches, Relays.
  • 7-Segment
  • 555 Timers in AS/MS/BS
Digital Electronics
  • Number System – Binary, Hex, Decimal,BCD System.
  • Addition/Subtraction of binary, 2’s complements.
  • Interconversion of number system.
  • Logic Gates – AND/OR/NOR/EXOR.
  • Filip-flop, Memory element.
  • Mux- De-Mux, Decoders.
  • Shift Registers.
  • Counters.

 Basics C

Sl#Unit NameUnit Objectives and Keywords
  • What is C?
  • Data Types
  • Variables
  • Naming Conventions for C Variables
  • Printing and Initializing Variables
  • Block Scope
  • Function Scope
  • File Scope
  • Program Scope
  • The auto Specifier
  • The static Specifier
  • The register Specifier
  • The extern Specifier
  • The register Specifier
  • The extern Specifier
  • if
  • if else
  • while
  • for
  • Endless Loops
  • do while
  • break and continue
  • switch
  • else if
  • #define
  • Macros
  • #include
  • Conditional Compilation
  • #ifdef
  • #ifndef
  • Function Declarations
  • Function Prototypes
  • Returning a Value or Not
  • Arguments and Parameters
  • Organization of C Source Files
  • Extended Example
  • Defining the Problem Space
  • A Programming Example
  • Bit Wise Operators
  • Bit Manipulation Functions
  • Circular Shifts
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Aggregate Operations
  • String Functions
  • Array Dimensions
  • An Array as an Argument to a Function
  • String Arrays
  • Example Programs
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Pointer Operators and Operations
  • Changing an Argument with a Function
  • call
  • Pointer Arithmetic
  • String Functions with Pointers
  • Pointer Difference
  • Prototypes for String Parameters
  • Relationship Between an Array and a Pointer
  • The Pointer Notation *p++
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Describing a Structure
  • Creating Structures
  • Operations on Structures
  • Functions Returning Structures
  • Passing Structures to Functions
  • Pointers to Structures
  • Array of Structures
  • Functions Returning a Pointer to a Structure
  • Structure Padding
  • typedef – New Name for an Existing Type
  • Bit Fields
  • unions
  • Non-Homogeneous Arrays
  • Enumerations


Tools Including S/W and H/W for Embedded Systems Training

Sl#Unit NameUnit Objectives and Keywords
  • Making project in Keil.
  • Keil features/ tabs
  • Memory models in Keil.
  • Debugger setting in Keil.
  • Linker settings in Keil.
  • Measuring Voltage/Current/Registers
  • Measuring continuity
  • Introducing BBT – Baring Board Test.
  • Use of CRO.
  • What is Trigger?
  • How to do setting in CRO.
  • Measuring Voltage/current from CRO
4Logic Analyzer
  • What is Logic Analyzer
  • How to use Logic Analyzer
  • What is the use of a logic analyzer
  • For which protocol we can use a logic analyzer.
5Soldering Iron/Heat GUN/
  • How to use Soldering Iron.
  • Precaution needs to take.

Basic Hardware Concepts  of Professional Training Institute

Sl#Unit NameUnit Objectives and Keywords
1Designing Power supply
  • Design of power supply 5V.
2Designing of 7 segment display
  • Study of 7 segment components
  • Designing Schematics of hardware
3Hardware Design guidelines.
  • Important concepts during hardware Schematics design
  • Important concepts during hardware PCB lay-outing.
4Active High/Active Low
  • Description of Active high and Active Low
5EMI/EMC consideration
  • Use of Ground Plan
  • Use of De-coupling capacitor
  • Use of TVS Diode
6Components Torrance and Data
sheet study
  • Component Torrance study.
  • Consideration during designing.

Basics of Embedded Systems

Sl#Unit NameUnit Objectives and Keywords
Basic Concepts and Review

  • Definition
  • Nomenclature
  • Buses – Address, Data, and Control
  • Architecture
  • Interfacing memory & I/O devices
  • Programming ( Assembly)
  • Monitor program
2Micro-controllerMicrocontroller Basic Concepts and Review

  • Architecture
  • Interfacing memory & I/O devices
  • Programming ( Assembly)
  • Assignments
  • Addition of two number.
  • Toggling Port with delay
  • Toggling Port with a timer.
  • Introduction of Interrupt.
  • Comparison interrupt and polling.
  • Communication with loopback.
  • Keyboard interface.
  • Controlling LED with Switches.
4Embedded CEmbedded C & Integrated Development Environment

  • Embedded C Programming
  • Data types
  • Pointers
  • Arrays
  • Pointer functions
  • Loops
5Introducing ARM
  • Induction of ARM Architecture
  • Difference between ARM9/ARM11
  • Different ARM concepts
  • The advantage of ARM.

Advance C

Sl#Unit NameUnit Objectives and Keywords
1Structure and union
  • Combination of Structure and union.
  • Bit fields in Structure.
  • Pointers to structure and union.
  • The advantage of Structure and union
2Function PointersMicrocontroller Basic Concepts and Review

  • Function pointers.
  • Callbacks
  • Advantage/use of functions pointers.
3Dynamic memory allocation
  • Malloc
  • Calloc
  • free
  • re-alloc
4File operations
  • Opening A file
  • Closing a file
  • Writing some data in a file and reading back and printing.
  • The different mode in which file can be open and write.
5String operation
  • Srtcpy
  • strcmp
  • strcat
  • strlen
  • strstr

Pre-requisites for the Embedded Training in Bangalore:

1. B.E/B. Tech/MTech/ ME/ MCA/M.Sc Candidates Pre-final & Final Year with a background preferably
Electronics, Electrical, Instrumentation or Computer science.

Professional Training Institute – Embedded Systems Training Institutes in Bangalore

Our training method is different, our students get hands-on experience, they do experiments individually, which helps them to understand each part clearly like for example in embedded part we train them on UART protocol, we make them think and write a program for UART protocol, and we let them do communication between two devices using the UART protocol, by all these they will have good understanding of the UART protocol and they can easily use UART anytime in future. In this way, they get more interest to know about different technologies and we make them work and think.
We start our embedded system training from basic electronics, we teach the importance of electronics components, circuit design and we train them to design a power supply for different voltages. During c-programming classes we make our student think of the logic of each programmer, we never help them for write program, instead we help them to think and solve, this help them develop their logical skills and they can able to write any different programs.
We make student to discuss in class, and to give a seminar, which helps our students to develop the communication skills.

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