Advantages And Disadvantages of Embedded Systems

Advantages And Disadvantages of Embedded Systems

During embedded systems training in Bangalore, Many student ask us what is the advantages and disadvantages of embedded systems. At Professional Training Institute campus had once open seminars for around 2 hours on these topics. Here I summarize the outcome of the seminar so that everyone gets benefited from learning.

Development Cycle

Embedded system is having a well-defined development cycle, this cycle starts from the requirement gathering, product specification, product design, unit testing, validation, the release of the product. Mainly this cycle includes development I.e. coding and unit testing. In the embedded system, we need to consider the capability of the embedded system, power requirement, target cost, etc.

During design, if the company is having similar expertise then it will help in development. In embedded company can develop a re-usable component. This component can be hardware or firmware or testing plans or review points etc. This type of reusable component help during the next development time. All the learning can be helpful in the next development cycle.

The disadvantage is if the developer made one mistake and we are using the same reusable component may be hardware design or firmware code, then the same code will be reflected in all products, wherever that component is re-used. So the re-usable component must to well tested and trusted.

Time of Development

Normally development time in embedded systems is higher. As embedded devices are meant to run independently throughout life. Due to this independent nature of the embedded device, during development time products need to test thoroughly for all possible conditions. Such due to long and regress testing, we can get many errors. Most of the errors are related to Firmware or connection-related, which are solved with less time. But sometimes we can Error which can lead to a long hardware modification development cycle.
So the time of development for a good quality product is always a constraint. This can be put into a disadvantage bucket. But over some time when companies develop the more and more maturity over embedded hardware, then this development reduce significantly and can be considered Advantage, as within a short period many (1-2 week) company can develop a new product. So the development time entirely depends upon developer knowledge and capabilities.

Cost

The product cost of the embedded system is always a key factor to discuss, it is having both advantages and disadvantages. Consider the very competitive market many products are available in the same segment, that time we can’t huge profit margin. We need to keep our price is also in the same segment, there is a possibility that we may not able to make much profit. Consider if our BOM (total cost of the component, PCB, Box) cost is 90$, but in the market same product is available at the price of 100$ then we also need to put a similar cost. In some cases, if our product having some special feature then we can charge an extra amount.
On the other hand, if our product is only in the segment and we are not having any direct competitor then the same product we can sell at 1000$, depends upon usability users are easily able to purchase our product. But in most of the cases, Embedded product cost is having 100% profit the margin which gives very attractive towards embedded system design.

Production

Once we have certified and tested embedded products with us then, the production of the embedded product is an easy and simple process. But production is always having the constraint of time, which means we need to finish production in less time. We can easily reproduce the same product at a low cost. When we go for production even the cost of the product further reduce due to the bulk quantity of production.
Production of the embedded device is a having advantage, one famous product can give a lot of profit to the company and it is having a huge margin. So this is a great advantage of an embedded system. On the other hand, some time in production if some wrong or default component is used then a whole lot of production gets failed, this can lead to heavy loss to the company, and the company should be ready to bear such losses. This is one of the losses of embedded system production.

Life of Product

For every embedded system we need to give some kinds of warranty, some time this warranty leads to huge profit or a huge loss. Profit or loss depends upon how good is our product.
Consider we are making a shaving device, and all our competitor is giving one year warranty, we can give a 2-year warranty and make our price higher. But this is only possible when we are having confidence in our product. Our product should be lost for more then 2 years, if not then it will be a huge loss for the organization.

Here is I will cover one very technical point, consider an EEPROM (Electrical Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory). EEPROM is always having a limited write cycle. Consider EEPROM is having a 100000 write cycle. If we give a warranty of 2 years then in one day we will only be allowed to write in EEPROM =100000/2*365 =136 times.
It means if are giving a 2-year warranty of our product and EEPROM we are using to save some data into it, then in a day, we should not write more then 136 times. If by mistake our software is writing more then 136 times then the EEPROM of our product will not be lost for 2 years and we may need to replace our product with a warranty. So this life of the product is having a lot of advantages and disadvantages of an embedded system world.

Operations in Filed and Maintenance:

Once we sold our product, our customers will come back to us only when we give service to them after-sales. While making products we need to consider the servicing and maintenance accepts also. Nowadays many devices are coming with firmware update over the air. Firmware update over the air will save a lot of time to visit service engineers to the actual site and do it manually.
So if the embedded product is having good features like an Auto diagnosis of error, Reporting possible error in advance to the server, isolating failed component, firmware update then we will have very
little maintenance cost and it will increase the trust of our customers as well. But for other product service engineers need to visit the actual product location that may increase the cost of maintenance.

We are a Professional Training Institute highly focused on embedded system training and giving more importance to hands-on embedded system training. We believe the learning by doing it has a great advantage. We are having expertise in Embedded system training, Linux internals, Linux device driver, Embedded Linux. You can visit us for more information on www.ptinstitute.in

Characteristics Of Embedded Systems

Characteristics Of Embedded Systems

With the knowledge I gain over 18 years in Industrial exposure, I am sharing my understanding of the embedded system with you. If anyone of you want to gain deeper knowledge in the embedded system then I will suggest you go through the practical and hands-on training in an embedded systems institute which makes you an embedded professional.
Here I want to share with you the characteristic of the embedded system, it will help you understand the embedded system better and deeper.
Here is I listed 10 important points which will tell you the characteristic of the embedded system, and how beautiful embedded system is. Here I want to tell you there are many – more characteristic are available which can be further explored.

1) Embedded Product Design for Infinite Life

Yes, I am not joking, all embedded products are designed to infinite life periods. In every embedded system, we are having
While (1)
{
// infinite loop
}
The meaning of this loop is embedded firmware will work forever. It means an embedded device is designed to be run for always/forever. Although the life of hardware is limited and after some time hardware is started degrading its performance while software (firmware) keeps working with full potential.

2) Self-Reset

Normally embedded device is developed to work in autonomous mode, it means no human will be available near to them. The example of such type of application is Energy meters, temperature monitor units, remote monitoring units, Windmill controllers. Consider in such type of embedded device if we got some error and firmware stops working then humans can’t reach there and reset the device.

In such a case normally we are using a time called watchdog timer, this timer help to reset the whole system if the system stuck some unwanted location. Actually during normal operation devices are keeps feeding the watchdog timer, so watchdog timer keeps running, but if our firmware stuck some unwanted loop then the firmware will not able to reset the watchdog timer. In this case, the watchdog timer will reset the whole system and try to recover the system automatically.

3) Real-time Processing Capability

Embedded system comes with real-time processing capabilities, it means the as soon as the signal is available will be processed and action will be taken accordingly. In some of the real-time application, timing is very critical. Let’s see some of the examples of real-time applications. Detecting rash driving on highways, war field spying robots, Health monitoring systems, etc. You can see in all of the above examples time is very critical, the embedded device needs to process the signal in almost real-time. Even a single mistake will ruin the purpose of the device. But fortunately, embedded systems are capable to process signals in real-time and take action faster.

4) Embedded Having Face Mask for User

This points only developer can understand while working in the embedded system we are having many things/data/signals which we are not showing to the user as it is. We as a developer having some other data with us, but to the user, we show some other thing. Normally to the user, we show in the human-readable format. This human-readable format gives clarity in operation and understanding of the machine, while actually, we may have very complex data with us.
Just for example if we want to display 1 on 7-segment display then actual we are writing 0x06 on the port to display one. So now you can see with this simple example that for 1 to display we are showing 0x06. This feature gives liberty to the developer that we can layout our world the ways we want.

5) Learn Once Use Lifetimes

This is a very beautiful feature of an embedded system, you just need to learn once and you can use that knowledge for the rest of your life. I will explain this in detail consider if you are working in JAVA/C#/JaveScript/etc any high-level programming language then with 6-12 months. you will get a new version of language itself or altogether a new language. So it means you need to keep learning continuously and upgrade your knowledge. But in the embedded system we are having a facility that if once we learn practically then you can use that knowledge as it is for the rest of your life. Here in Professional Training Institute, we focus on practical and hands-on training in the embedded systems, that gives stable carrier to our student.

6) Having Capability to Match Real Lifetime

In many embedded applications, we are having a requirement to take action on exactly 10:00 AM or 6:00 PM, etc. So it means any delay in time will lead to missing the purpose of the device itself. In such an application, we need to generate or maintain time inside of embedded devices such that this time matches exactly the same as real-world time.

In most of the applications, we are using RTC chip – real-time clock to do this activity, but in some embedded applications using internal timer we are calculating time, in such an embedded device we need to write very optimize code so that we can calculate real-time from firmware. Calculating time with firmware is fun.

7) Software Behaviour

Software behavior is always the same but hardware can change its behavior. The behavior of embedded firmware will always same, it means the ways firmware is working the first time then next time and every time firmware will work the same ways. So as an embedded developer we should be always confident behavior of embedded firmware. But hardware can change its behavior, over a period of time hardware degraded. Due to the degraded hardware, we face behavior changes. As a human being whenever any program occurs we directly doubt our work, but as per my experience, the most common cause of the error is a connection/wring/environment, etc. Which means neither hardware nor software is giving problems.

8) Encryption Algorithm Make Embedded Safe From Hackers

Embedded system is porn to hacking, in much critical application hacker are trying to theft data. In the current world, data is costlier than gold. But fortunately, in the embedded system we are having encryption algorithms like (SHA, DES, AES, MD5, etc.). By using Encryption algorithm users are able to save the embedded system from hackers. The above algorithm is very hard to hack, and almost zero practical hacking attempts got succeed till now.

9) Detection and Reporting of Hardware and Software Failure

This is a very advanced feature in new embedded systems. We are able to detect the possible error in hardware or software based on the past learning of machine. Here I will give one example, EEPROM is having a limited write cycle, so while writing software we can limit and count our EEPROM write. So even before it occurs our device is safe. Still consider we can save some know signature bytes in the memory like 0xAA5500AA on some know location. Periodically read and verify the signature bytes, it will let firmware know that EEPROM is in good condition and is able to save data. We are having many other methods like ti-redundancy check, in this methods, we save our data into three locations, and before using read all three and compare at-least two data should match, then only we consider data is valid. Almost all computers are having a power-on self-test, in this computer try to detect hardware availability as well and normal functionality. Similar functionality is implemented in an embedded system as well.

10) ASIC Help to Reduce Hardware and Software

Now a day we are having special IC for the special purpose of work, it is called as ASIC – application-specific integrated chip. The advance of ASIC is it helps to reduce the hardware and software. Most of the work of hardware and software will be converted into IC format and companies creating special ICs. such as ICs is having many advantages like

  • Reduce cost
  • Small in size
  • Fast development
  • Less chance of copying the data.

Here I had listed some of the characteristics of the embedded system, we at professional training institute focus on practical and hands-on embedded system training in Bangalore. We are having an embedded system training institute in Bangalore, we also provide training in Linux device driver and Embedded Linux. Contact us for more details.

What Is Deep Learning

What is Deep Learning

What is deep learning, nowadays many students want to know about it? Deep learning is another branch of the embedded system, in embedded system data collected by the sensor is in the core of the algorithm. Before starting deep learning is will be advantages to embedded system training in Bangalore, it will help you to get understanding and collecting sensor data.

Deep learning is part of a big family of machine learning, here we mainly focus on deep learning. With deep learning, the algorithm computer is capable of learning like a brain. In simple words, when we are child our brain learning by touching, smelling, tasting, and feeling. Similar ways computers also capable to learn slowly one by one, step by step using a deep algorithm like a neural network. Using a neural network computer is capable to extract complicate concepts and relationships of data.

In deep learning computer use data like picture, sound, video, text, and established complex the relationship among these data, this learning computer remember and uses in the next algorithm. In deep learning, we are having many more data sets, which is used for learning to teach computers. Using deep algorithm computers take the complex decision and use these decisions for the next algorithm. In deep learning, we need to focus on speed, scalability, and flexibility.

Speed:

We have to design a deep learning algorithm so that computers are capable of learning quickly. In order to learn faster computers need many more CPUs and GPUs to solve complex matrix. Using high-speed CPUs and GPUs user can speed up computer deep learning.

Scalability:

Consider the case when we have written the algorithm to lean COVID-19 spread in the world, soon after the deep learning algorithm computer can able to tell how COVID-19 going to spread in the future, we continuously need to feed new data so that we get correct prediction in advance.

Flexibility:

During algorithm many, we may need to use much software that required very high computation power. So we need to choose a deep learning algorithm that is best suited for our algorithm.

Now we will see what is the use of deep learning and where we are using deep learning. Nowadays across the world, many companies are working in deep learning.

Computer Vision:

In the application of computer vision, face recognition is most widely used. Although there are millions of applications of computer vision, like production control, quality inspection, autonomous driving cars, etc. In computer vision, We take input from a camera, sound, heat and proximity data, using all input computer vision is created which is capable to detect the face of human, or quality inspection at a faster rate, or drive a car automatically.

Speech Recognition:

Speech recognition is another important application of deep learning. On every smartphone. We are having voice command using google voice, Amazon Alexa, Microsoft Cortana, Apple Siri are the major name among many more which can recognize input voice, take action on them and analyze for future use.

Dealing With Malware:

Deep learning can help a lot in malware analysis and protect computer users. In new world malware attach are a very severe effect. Nowadays malware can theft user data and it use for many scams.

Network Traffic Analysis:

Deep learning is very useful for our country, much tarriest organization are using the internet for communication among their team, using deep learning communication can track and used for security purposes.

User Behavior Analysis:

When a customer is visiting the shopping mall, he is keep seeing many products and then chose few, while another customer is just directly going and buying a product. These varying behavior can we understand properly using IoT and embedded systems. With deep learning we will able to predict the product customer is going to buy, these deep learning can help to suggest the product user is interested in buying.

Here in Professional Training Institute, we are mainly focusing on embedded system training, Linux device driver, Embedded Linux, and IOT training. Our teaching method is completely practical and hands-on. We are a best-embedded system training institute in Bangalore.

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